Creation Of The Universe (In The Light Of Science And Quran)
Creation of the universe is a vast topic of science and Quran. To summarise it in one article is quite impossible.
Categories Of Human Needs
When we sum up human needs, we conclude that, broadly there are two categories of needs:
- Physical and material needs
- Spiritual needs
Hence, we can say that man has two kinds of existence,
- Material existence
- Spiritual existence
Both existences have their own needs. It is commonly observed that, no matter how advanced a person may be, his spiritual existence keeps on demanding religion for spiritual and inner peace. Moreover, it has also been observed that the spiritual thirst of man increases as he strives to satisfy material needs. The ultimate way he finds to quench his thirst is religion.
Miracles of Quran proven by science
The purpose of this article is not to present the negative aspects of science and the positive aspects of religion, but to explain the relationship between science and Islam. Therefore, we can say that it is an introduction to the sciences of the Quran. Additionally, it highlights the important point that amazing scientific facts that science has revealed today about the mystery of the universe, the Holy Quran had informed us all those about fourteen hundred years ago. In other words this article is a scientific proof of miracles in the Holy Quran. In short, it is a scientific research on Quran.
Scientific Discoveries In Quran
The creation of the universe and the Quran is a vast subject. It is impossible to describe it in one article. Therefore, some discoveries are described here for illustration. These are as follow:
- Before Renaissance
- Theory of an expanding universe
- The Cosmic Egg and The Big Bang
- The splitting asunder of the Earth and the Sky
- Big Crunch
- Creation of new universe (Superspace)
Before Renaissance, the Christian Church had ruled Europe for almost one thousand years. It was a time when scientific development was frozen, and superstition, intolerance, and bigotry were rampant. If a person tried to explain nature or natural processes through scientific arguments or those arguments contradicted Christian traditions, that person would be severely punished. In short, the church held absolute autonomy. They had excluded liberalism, innovation and other similar factors from the education system. Furthermore, they declared it unlawful.
Science VS Religion
The conflict between science and religion continued for almost two centuries. With the passage of time, the Christian Church’s authority gradually weakened. Resultantly, religious involvement in their lives also ended. Whatever science said was said in the light of experiments and logical arguments. This attracted people towards science. Hence, scientific arguments began to rule their hearts. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
An Arabic proverb is:
کل جدید لذیذ
Meaning: Everything new is charming.
Out of this suffocating environment, science paved the way for its progress. The efforts of reconciliation between science and religion ended in the form of secularism. Secularism determines the boundaries of the two. Hence, their domains became separate. There remained no need for God or any religion. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
Relationship between Islam And Science:
The Quran provides us with complete guidance which is the guarantee of success in this life and the life hereafter. Contrary to the horrific background between science and religion, Islam paves the way for reconciliation between science and religion. In short, Islam acts as a bridge between the creator and His creation. Walking on which we can raise the voices of SubhanAllah (all praise is for Allah, He is perfect) on the great masterpiece of nature and on the charm and beauty of this wonderful system. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
Allama Suyuti writes about the Quranic wonders in following words:
- The Book of Allah (Holy Quran) is comprehensive of everything; there is no knowledge and no problem whose origin and base is not present in the Holy Quran. Moreover, the Quran contains details of the wonders of creation, the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and everything related to the heavenly and lower worlds, for which several volumes are required. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
In the beginning, astronomers believed that the universe was eternal and static. Similarly, scientists thought that the universe was a material thing and had no beginning. It means that, there was not any stage of creation. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
One of the reasons for the materialists’ theory that the universe has always existed was to justify the denial of the existence of Allah by ignoring the creative aspect of the universe. The 1920s and 1930s were of great importance in the history of modern astronomy.
Is The Quran Scientifically Accurate?
Following points show the relationship between Quran and science. It also depicts that science proves Quran:
- In 1922, Alexander Friedman gave the theory of expanding universe. In the light of Einstein’s theory of Relativity he proved that universe is not static. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
- Georges Lemaitre was the first person who endorsed Friedman’s research. He said that the universe has a starting point. Moreover, it is expanding as if something has forced it to expand. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
- In 1929 Edwin Hubble measured the redshifts of a number of distant galaxies. At that time he was working at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California. He also measured their relative distances. He did it by measuring the apparent brightness of a class of variable stars called Cepheids in each galaxy. When he plotted redshift against relative distance, he found that the redshift of distant galaxies increased as a linear function of their distance. The only explanation for this observation is that the universe was expanding. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
Science in Quran
There are number of verses of the Holy Quran that show scientific facts in the holy Quran.
- Allah says in sura Fatir:
اَلۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ فَاطِرِ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ جَاعِلِ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ رُسُلًا اُولِیۡۤ اَجۡنِحَۃٍ مَّثۡنٰی وَ ثُلٰثَ وَ رُبٰعَ ؕ یَزِیۡدُ فِی الۡخَلۡقِ مَا یَشَآءُ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ
Meaning: All praise belongs to Allah alone, Who is the Creator of (all the infinities of) the heavens and the earth, and Who makes the angels messengers having two or three or four wings. He adds to (and expands) the creation as He wills. Surely, Allah is All-Powerful over everything. (31:1)
- Allah expressed this view in detail in sura al-Dhariyat:
وَ السَّمَآءَ بَنَیۡنٰہَا بِاَیۡىدٍ وَّ اِنَّا لَمُوۡسِعُوۡنَ ﴿۴۷
Meaning: And We built the heavenly universe with great might. And surely, We are expanding (this universe) more and more. (51:47)
- He says in sura al-Nahal:
وَ یَخۡلُقُ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۸
Meaning: And He creates (things) that you do not know (today). (16:8)
The Cosmic Egg and The Big Bang
After the research of centuries, modern cosmology and astronomy has come to the conclusion that the material universe began with a unit of zero degree mass.
Allama Tahir-ul-Qadri writes in his book:
- In 1965, two American scientists, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, discovered the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) and proved that the whole universe began with the Big Bang. They named it Minute Cosmic Egg that has a lot of energy inside it. It suddenly exploded in an explosion, called Big Bang, which resulted in the creation of different types of matter in the universe and later different galaxies came into existence. (Quran on Creation and Expansion of the Universe)
- Allah says in the Holy Quran:
اَوَ لَمۡ یَرَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اَنَّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ کَانَتَا رَتۡقًا فَفَتَقۡنٰہُمَا ؕ﴿۳۰
Meaning: And have the disbelievers not seen that the whole heavenly universe and the earth were (all) joined together as one unit, and then We split them apart? (21:30)
- He says in sura al-Falaq:
قُلۡ اَعُوۡذُ بِرَبِّ الۡفَلَقِ ۙ﴿۱﴾مِنۡ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ ۙ﴿۲
Meaning: Beseech: I seek refuge with the Lord of daybreak (or Who brought the universe into existence with an explosion extremely fast), from the evil influence (and harmfulness) of everything that He has created. (113:1-2)
How Is The Quran A Miracle?
It is an amazing fact of human history that fourteen hundred years ago, when there were no instruments of astronomy, whatever the Holy Quran told us, science has recently revealed that the sky and the earth were joined together.
Billions of years ago, an explosion called the Big Bang took place. Resultantly, a whirlwind of fire came into existence, which then shattered. Then those heaps of clouds cooled down and formed the earth and the gases and steam in that cloud cooled down and formed the sky. It means that, the heavens and the earth were single unit in the cloud, but later separated. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
- Allah says in the Holy Quran:
اَوَ لَمۡ یَرَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اَنَّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ کَانَتَا رَتۡقًا فَفَتَقۡنٰہُمَا ؕ وَ جَعَلۡنَا مِنَ الۡمَآءِ کُلَّ شَیۡءٍ حَیٍّ ؕ اَفَلَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۳۰
Meaning: And have the disbelievers not seen that the whole heavenly universe and the earth were (all) joined together as one unit, and then We split them apart? And We originated (the life of) living organism (on earth) from water. So do they not accept faith (even after learning these facts brought forth by the Qur’an)? (21:30)
- According to scientific research, in the sky, there are layers of seven heavens. The Quran puts a seal on this fact with the words:
ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ لَکُمۡ مَّا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ جَمِیۡعًا ٭ ثُمَّ اسۡتَوٰۤی اِلَی السَّمَآءِ فَسَوّٰىہُنَّ سَبۡعَ سَمٰوٰتٍ ؕ وَ ہُوَ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿٪ ۲۹
Meaning: He is the One Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then He turned towards the higher regions (of the universe) and perfected them into seven heavenly firmaments. And He has full knowledge of everything. (2:29)
The universe is a creation and its creator and the absolute ruler is Allah Almighty, the All Powerful. How Allah created the universe and how it will be wrapped and what will be the condition at that time, how qiyamah will take place? All these have been clearly discussed in the Quran. It is not wrong to say that all these are miracles of the holy Quran.
What Science Says About Quran Facts?
After so many years, science and astronomers have come to the conclusion that the universe will suffer a catastrophic collapse and everything will come to an end. The universe began to expand after a powerful explosion from a zero degree unit. This explosion is called the Big Bang. In the same way another explosion called the Big Crunch will take place which will contract the universe again into a point or zero degree unit. This puts a seal on the truth of scientific discoveries mentioned in the Quran.
The incident of “Bing Bang” is described in the book “Quran on Creation and Expansion of the Universe” in these words:
- Our universe, which came into existence 11 to 20 billion years ago, will come to an end about 80 billion years later with the first great explosion in the universe, known as Big Crunch.
The black hole is one of the most important and amazing topics to consider in modern times. It is a mystery on which modern science is researching to solve. Black holes are actually dead bodies which are expected to form when very massive stars collapse at the end of their life cycle. Those stars were many times larger than the sun. In short, when stars many times larger than the sun burn out their fuel, they collapse internally and eventually turn into black holes. Their gravity is so strong that nothing—no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from it.
What Is Islamic Science?
Allama Tahir-ul-Qadri has described it in his book “Quran on Creation and Expansion of the Universe” as follows:
- When a star 20 times the size of the Sun explodes in the form of a supernova at 35,000,000 degree centigrade, it usually leaves behind a massive body that is not the final stage of a neutron star. It is possible that it has so much gravity that it continue to grow by absorbing mass from its surroundings. As its density increases, so does its gravitational force, even though nothing, including light, can escape from its gravity. This is called a black hole. At the center of the black hole, there is debris of the former stars which is extremely dense but has zero mass. This point is called singularity. (According to a discreet estimate) there are likely to be about 10 million black holes in our galaxy that have been created by supernova explosions of massive stars.
When the universe will reach the age of 1027 years, it will consist of black holes filled with clusters of dead stars. After the passage of some more time, all the galaxies will rotate towards each other and collide with each other to form a huge cosmic black hole. Eventually, after 10106 years, it will evolve into a huge black hole vapour in the form of particles and radiation that would be the equivalent of a billion megawatts of hydrogen bombing. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
With the help of latest technology and research on black holes, science succeeded in taking a picture of the black hole in 2019. The research has consternated the public and the scientific community because black hole weighs six and a half billion times the Sun. At a distance of 40 billion kilometers, this black hole is considered to be the largest black hole in the universe and it is present in the Galaxy M87. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
The world is not eternal, nor will it last forever. According to scientists, the cosmic system is designed in such a way that there will come a time when nothing will be left in the world and everything will be destroyed. This will happen with a big explosion like the ‘big crunch’ or the black hole will amalgamate everything or there will be some other tragedy similar to it. But in any case, it is certain that the way the world began has an end and it is moving towards its end. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
According to John Wheeler, the great astrophysicist, the black hole in the universe is only a rehearsal for the last doomsday Big Crunch. Moreover, he believes that it will expose the unstable reality of creation at the end of the universe. (Quran Kareem Ke Sciencei Inkishafat)
According to the Quran, that last destruction will take place in the form of the Day of Judgment.
- Allah says:
یَوۡمَ تَرۡجُفُ الۡاَرۡضُ وَ الۡجِبَالُ وَ کَانَتِ الۡجِبَالُ کَثِیۡبًا مَّہِیۡلًا ﴿۱۴
Meaning: The Day when the earth and the mountains shall shake violently and mountains will turn into heaps of flying away sand. (73:14)
- He says in sura al-Qiyamah:
یَسۡـَٔلُ اَیَّانَ یَوۡمُ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ ؕ﴿۶﴾ فَاِذَا بَرِقَ الۡبَصَرُ ۙ﴿۷﴾ وَ خَسَفَ الۡقَمَرُ ۙ﴿۸﴾ وَ جُمِعَ الشَّمۡسُ وَ الۡقَمَرُ ۙ﴿۹﴾ یَقُوۡلُ الۡاِنۡسَانُ یَوۡمَئِذٍ اَیۡنَ الۡمَفَرُّ ﴿ۚ۱۰
Meaning: He asks (scornfully): ‘When is the Day of Resurrection? But when the eyes will be dazzled, and the moon will be eclipsed and the sun and the moon will be fused (i.e., darkened) together. On that Day man will cry out: ‘Where to flee away?’ (75: 6-10)
According to the Islamic teachings, at the end of this worldly life, the life hereafter and the eternal life will begin. On that day, everyone’s record of deeds will be handed over to him and one will be rewarded or punished on the basis of one’s deeds.
The system of this universe is operating in a specific pattern. After keen observation of this system, science has come to the conclusion that this world will end one day and a new universe will begin. They called this new universe a superspace. This theory is given by John Wheeler, a great astrophysicist.
Islam and Modern Sciences
According to modern sciences, if the world collided according to the laws of nature regarding the black hole, it is quite possible that it would re-emerge. The Big Crunch could lead to a new Big Bang, the first major explosion in the universe. The result will be creation of a new universe. During the process of change of universe from one form to another, there will be a phase of change that John Wheeler calls the superspace.
Moreover, according to him, that world will be of infinite dimensions. Each point of that world will be in itself a complete universe and will be perfectly according to the geometric rules. Wheeler insists that superspace is not a poetic fantasy but a fact based on the theory of general relativity as he pursues the Big Crunch from the point of the Big Bang on a slightly ambiguous line and tries to find out the creation of the universe according to the theory of relativity. (Quran on Creation and Expansion of the Universe)
One principle that has not changed from its creation till end is its purpose. If we meditate on this one point carefully, then we have to acknowledge the existence of Allah Almighty and His Oneness. Alas, those who, despite knowing this inescapable fact, keep their eyes closed and remain unfortunate in this world and the world hereafter.
Furthermore, science has done a number of modern research on the creation of the universe in the light of its rational arguments, but the mystery of the universe still exists today. In the beginning, the purpose of scientific researches was to learn facts about the creation of the universe, and when the facts began to unfold, it is astonishing that the world, which is running under a mechanism, is in fact heading towards its end.
Hence, the creation of the universe has been a complex matter for science, but for Muslims following single point and perfect certainty is the answer to all the questions. That is:
- Allah says Kun and the universe came into existence.
Get the answers to your questions regarding Sufism.
After so many years, science and astronomers have come to the conclusion that the universe will suffer a catastrophic collapse and everything will come to an end. The universe began to expand after a powerful explosion from a zero degree unit. This explosion is called the Big Bang. In the same way another explosion called the Big Crunch will take place which will contract the universe again into a point or zero degree unit.
The universe is a creation and its creator and the absolute ruler is Allah Almighty, the All Powerful.
The creation of the universe has been a complex matter for science, but for Muslims following single point and perfect certainty is the answer to all the questions. That is:
- Allah says Kun and the universe came into existence.
This article was published in Mahnama Sultan-ul-Faqr Lahore (monthly Urdu magazine of Tehreek Dawat-e-Faqr) titled as
تخلیق ِ کائنات۔سائنس اور قرآنی تعلیمات کی روشنی میں
‘Takhleeq-e-Kainat, Science or Qurani Taleemat Ki Roshni Mein’ in the issue of June 2020. It was originally written by Mrs. Fatima Burhan Sarwari Qadri and translated in English by Faiza Fahad Sarwari Qadri. If you wish to read it in Urdu then please visit the link: